(13-Oct-2011) Luiz PY3DU (GF49iu) comments: on 9 and 11 October
in the evening (01:00 UTC) I have worked NP2X in CW and SSB on 144.300. The
first QSO with 50w and groundplane antenna and the second with an old 4 el.
yagi. PY3FF Rafael in Porto Alegre was also QRV.
14-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
18-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
28-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
30-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
31-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
1-Apr-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
6-Apr-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Apr-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
12-Apr-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-Apr-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
20-Apr-1979 VK8HW PH57 JR6LHX FM
3-May-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
10-May-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-May-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
1-Aug-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Aug-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
23-Aug-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
30-Aug-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
3-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
6-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
10-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
12-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
13-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
16-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
25-Sep-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
14-Mar-1979 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
5-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
6-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
8-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
12-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
18-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
28-Mar-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
2-Apr-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
22-Apr-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
5-May-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
17-May-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
1-Aug-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
23-Aug-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
24-Aug-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
2-Sep-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
5-Sep-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Sep-1980 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
10-Mar-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
17-Jul-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Aug-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
20-Aug-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
24-Aug-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
28-Aug-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
3-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
4-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
8-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
9-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
16-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
17-Sep-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
2-Oct-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-Oct-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
22-Oct-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
27-Oct-1981 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
11-Feb-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
12-Feb-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
26-Feb-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
27-Feb-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
4-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
6-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
7-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
14-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
20-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
23-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
24-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
25-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
28-Mar-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
1-Apr-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
8-Apr-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
14-Apr-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
16-Apr-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
23-Apr-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
10-May-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
18-May-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
17-Aug-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
20-Aug-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
1-Sep-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-Sep-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
30-Sep-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
2-Oct-1982 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA
15-Mar-1983 11:20-11:46 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA 7 QSOs
26-Mar-1983 11:08-12:16 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA6 7 QSOs
27-Mar-1983 10:15-12:34 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA 7 QSOs
28-Mar-1983 10:15-10:55 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA 8 QSOs
11-Apr-1983 12:22-12:35 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA 4 QSOs
12-Apr-1983 10:20-10:46 VK8GB PH57 JF6ILP 19 QSOs
20-Apr-1983 11:35-11:52 VK8GB PH57 wrk JA 5 QSOs
(20-Nov-2010) Roberto, PU2YEN, reports the following TEP QSO:
Today 20/nov/2010 at qrg 145700.0 in
(fm) i made contact again fm1fv Manuel, in fk94 Martinique island with
signal 5/7 in gg56nv pu2yen aware sp brazil. (QSO is now in the
(20-Nov-2010) Carlos, PY2HCD, reports the following TEP QSO:
PY2HCD GG66CT - FM8DY FK94MO Randon. Not spot. Not sched. FM8DY answered my
CW CQ. 18/nov/2010 - 11:58 UTC (23:58?) -
144.197 MHZ - CW - S 519 - R 559 Very fast QSB. High speed was inpractical.
Best In 12 WPM Best heading 330 Deg. (Normal) 4436 km. PY2HCD STATION: Ant:
2 X 7 El by PY2NI vertical polarization Yaesu FT897d Home made 10 Db Low
Noise Rx Pr?amplifier Home made 200 Watts Linear Amplifier Comments: The
sun spot number was 42. Not so high to be appointed as responsible for this
QSO, once rare, now not so much. It seems unquestionable that the dip at the
geomagnetic equator, in South America, is shifting to NE. 144 Mhz TEP, on
paralel 22, in South America, was unworkable 10 years ago. TEP is via the
ionosphere. Via the ionosphere, the signal is rotated. Twisted. Then, the
polarization of antennas is not the determining factor in a contact TEP on
144 MHz. These and other contacts between Brazil and the Caribbean, at 144
MHz, demonstrate this. You do not need a yagi in horizontal polarization to
TEP. You need to be active! (Of course, in the right place, HI HI).
(QSO is now in the
(16-Nov-2010) Joao, PY2REK, reports the following TEP QSO:
A new country was conquered on 2010-15-11 23:40 UTC contact with TO9RRG
FK96FG 144 200 MHz SFI 91 - K7 - A2 4766km in total, the video of the
contact can be seen in
(QSO is now in the
(14-Sept-2010) Joao, PY2REK, reports the following TEP QSO:
After years of waiting was finally confirmed with the first QSO via TEP
FM8DY, signs in GG65PU were 52 and 52 also the Jeam FM8DY in FK94, My setup:
FT847 50w ant 10They H. Some data for future research. SFI 74 - A5 - K1 QTR
HS Day 13/10/2010 23:49. (QSO
is now in the
(19-Sept-2010) Roberto, PU2YEN, reports the following TEP QSO:
Annonce the startof new season
transequatorial in southastern brazil. Today at 02:18 utc qrg 144200.0 in
usb i made contactagain fm8dy jean louis in martinique (fk94mo)with signal 5/9 in (gg56nv)Avare Sp Brazil. 73,s by PU2YEN. (QSO is now in the
(20-May-2010) Roberto, PU2YEN, reports the following TEP QSO:
boa noite, meu nome e Roberto pu2yen; pesquisando sobre tep decobri esse
site e resolvi lhes escrever . no dia 07 de março de 2010 as 01:00utc na
qrg de 144200.0 usb , realizei contato com a etaçao de fm8dy in isl
martinique com sinais de 55 para fk94mo e 53 para gg56nv. foram
aproximadamente 10 minutos de contato com muita tranquilidade . Usava no
momento 50watts , antenna cubica de 7 elements direcionada a no azimute de
15 a 30 graus . 73,s by pu2yen (QSO
(26-Dec-2009) Julio, NP3CW, reports the following TEP QSO:
-28-X-00- 20:40-SSB- TEP- 144.300- GF15wd 6,024 kms LW9EVS -27-XII-01-00;37-SSB-TEP-144.300 (QSO are now in the QSO listing)
I had in the past multiple contacts in 2 mtrs with stations in LU,CX,PY
but they did not send QSL cards. I have only made 70 cms contact in FM,SSB
and CW with locals stations in FK68 and FK78 but so far no DX in this band.
(31-Oct-2009) Arnaldo, PY5AQ (GG54HO),
reports a QSO in SSB with FM/F5DYD (FK94MO)
at 00:34z. FM/F5DYD
was also worked from GG53QW
with signals peaking 59+. (QSO is now in the QSO listing)
(7-Aug-2009) Fausto, I4EAT, has provided the following information
and QSL card of this QSO with ZS3E in
1979: "As you can see on the scans
attached the QSO was confirmed on 31/3/1979,the day before I was listening him for abt 20'with a vy strong signal but unfortunately he
was only TXing as a beacon."
(25-Jul-2009) Francesco, I0UZF, has provided the following
QSL card of his QSO with
ZS3E in 1989: "This is a report about a QSO I made on oct. 26, 1989 from the
qth JN62EX to JG89 with ZS3E. I do not remember now the complete locator of
ZS3E (I should look for it on the old paper log... of 20 years ago...).
However I send you a file with the
where you can find more infos.... Somewhere I should have also a tape with
the recorded qso. At that time my conditions where: rx: CF300 front end, tx:
250w, ant: 20 el yagi."
(5-Aug-2008) Matej, OK1TEH, has kindly provided a copy of the
article "A newly
discovered mode of propagation", by Joseph H.Reisert, W1JR, ex-W6FZJ,
W1JAA and Gene Pfeffer, K0JHH, published in QST in October 1978.
You will find it in the bibliography section.
Many thanks Matej !!
(1-Aug-2008) PY2REK reports the following TEP contact in 2006:
11/17/2006 00:30 utc PY2REK GG64BX FM5CS FK94KP USB 144200
(1-Nov-2007) This is just a reminder that DXMAPS is keeping a
database of all VHF&up contacts and SWL reported through the DX-Cluster. You
can query the database at any time looking for TEP
contacts reported in the past days, months or between two given dates.
You can also look at several maps showing in
real time the spots being submitted.
(1-Nov-2007) M?imo, EA1DDO/HK1DX send us the following
DH5HG has developed a program that shows rotatable 3-D-images of the
duct model for the Trans Equatorial Propagation (TEP) in the years 1950 ...
2010. You can download it
from his home page (2.8 MB), but bear in mind that in order to run it
you need to have installed the
Matlab Component Runtime (102 MB)
(8-Oct-2007) First PJ4-LU TEP QSO. Tonight(08.10) I had a very nice
QSO on 144.200.
At around 00:40 UTC I gave CQ and Delmer LU1FDQ came back for me. We
exchanged 5/5 reports and the distance between FF97OW and FK52UD is 4979 km. This was my first ever TEP contact and I used my EME setup with the
4x 9el Wimo yagi's and 1kW.
I tried elevating while receiving and I lost the signal at 15 degrees of
elevation. Except YV4DYJ in tropo I did not copy any other signals on
(4-Oct-2007) Andr?PY5EW reports he had 144 MHz QSOs via Ducted
(evening-type) TEP with stations in Trinidad & Tobago on Monday 1 October
from 0059 UTC. He worked 9Z4FZ, 9Z4GU and 9Z4DMA with signals 5x5. Andr?is
in Londrina, South Brazil, and runs an FT-857D (170W) to a 15-element
horizontal Yagi. Solar activity - Low. 10.7 cm Flux - 65. They have been
included in the QSO listing.
(Thanks Steve, VK2KFJ, for forwarding the info)
(24-March-2007) VK2ZRH (ex-VK2ZTB) has
provided some interesting additional bibliography from
the proceedings of the 1979 Symposium on Future Amateur Communications Techniques. Many thanks Roger!
(24-March-2007) VK4ZSH has submitted some further updates to the VK-JA
QSO list. They have been included in the QSO
listing. Many thanks again
(18-March-2007) VK4BFO contributes with the following information:
"Steve,VK4ZSH,recently spoke to me and asked if I would send details of my
2m contacts from Mount Isa in northwest Queensland. I have attached a
copy of an article that was
printed in the Japanese CQ magazine in 1983. The contacts were made in
1983 and the dates as indicated. Steve's contacts and mine are shown on the
page. I cannot remember the times or names of the operators although the
time would have been between 09.30 and 10.30 hrs GMT. Sorry about my poor
record keeping but it was a long time ago".
"There was a good opening in 1991 and on 15/04/1991 I worked JI7DMB from
Mount Isa for an Australian record that still stands. The distance was
6763km and it was on CW mode and as above I cannot remember the operators
name or the time. I did work other J stations around that time but they are
Many thanks Mike !
(18-March-2007) OK1TEH contributes with the following
"I have some interesting info from John, IV3GBO from Udine, JN66OA. He said,
that he worked on 2m 20years ago some Namibian station ZS3 and heard ZE2JV beacon. I asked him about elevation and answer was no elevation at
all.The signals were strong with auroral characteristics. He has record on
tape and he'll look for more info soon."
(18-March-2007) PY5ZD and PY5AQ have send their recent QSO
listings. They have now been included in the American sector QSO listing.
Many thanks Marcelo and Arnaldo!
(18-March-2007) VK4ZSH has kindly sent some updates to the VK-JA
QSO list. They have been included in the QSO
listing and some also in the map. He has also
provided some additional bibliography. Many thanks
(1-January-2007) The Japy DX Group will be active again from GG64BX
between 2-Jan and 7-Jan looking for TEP. (More details)
(3-September-2006) Peter, PP5XX (PY5CC), sends in the listing
of his QSO in 2006 with caribean stations. (Added to the
(6-July-2006) Matej, OK1TEH, provides the following
interesting information on TEP from OK:
We visited Pavel OK1AIY and Stan OK1MS with scanner and i made scan of
card for 432 MHz TEP from ZS6 to OK1AIY (in the same time ZS6LW was heard
laud by many other OK stations like OK1MWD. ZS6LW was testing his signal and
Pavel AIY called him, but ZS6LW thought that he is neighbour from next
village so QSO wasn't complete hi:-) Pavel wasn't able to find his log, but
he promised he'll look for it.
We also visited Standa OK1MS (ex OK1MBS), so i send you
of his logbook. He was very interested in listening TEP in that time,
however he heard only that one beacon and next time he suffered from too big
QRNon the same QRG, so he stopped with TEP tests.
Also from our club OK2KKW (es OK1KRA) David heard in 1982 the same beacon
with 4x16el F9FT, however I'm waiting for that logbook too.
(17-June-2006) Maximo, EA1DDO/HK1DX, sends a link to an
on TEP, in Portuguese, written by A.J.Laimgruber (PY2BBL) in 1987 and
published in the AN-EP magazine. Vol 94-95. (Added to the
(27-Mar-2006) PP5FMM, Mateus, reports the following TEP QSO on
2m using a FT-857D 50 Watts, Yagi 17 Elem. Horizontal 12m high. 26-Mar-2006 01:34 PP5FMM GG52KH FJ5DX FK87NV SSB 26-Mar-2006 01:39 PP5AMP GG52KH FJ5DX FK87NV SSB 26-Mar-2006 01:41 PP5KE GG52KH FJ5DX FK87NV SSB 26-Mar-2006 01:42 PP5JR GG52KH FJ5DX FK87NV SSB
(26-Feb-2006) Phil, FJ5DX has sent me the following information: Peter, PP5XX ex PY5CC ask me in february, if it is possible to go on 2 m for
testing the TEP. At this time, I was pratiquely sure that the test are
impossible. At the first skeed, the contact with Peter was etablised !
After, it was pratiquely a routine contact. Please note the following
contact for February on 144,200 mhz :
DATE : TIME calls mode my/rpt recei/rpt 19/02/06 0017 PP5XX CW 319 519 GG53 8 mn 24/02/06 0125 PP5XX CW 539 519 GG53 15 mn 26/02/06 0100 PU5YFT CW 319 CQ DX GG54 26/02/06 0105 PY5EW SSB 54 57 GG46 26/02/06 0112 PY5HOT SSB 54 54 GG46 26/02/06 0155 PP5XX CW 519 CQ DX 26/02/06 0200 PY5EW SSB 52 CQ DX (Added to the
listing and to the Map)
PHIL FJ5DX FK87NV ST BARTHELEMY ISLAND
IC 706MK II G 50w Ant : Vertical 5/8 ?3 meters above the ground
(22-Feb-2006) Fl?io Archangelo, PY2ZX, has posted the results of
the JAPY group TEP expedition. These are some very interesting links:
Maximo expects to go back to HK by the end this year and he will be
active on the VHF bands with a good setup.
(10-Jan-2006) This information has been posted by Fl?io
Archangelo PY2ZX. Mr. Pacheco PP5AMP (/PY3) heard Venezuela (maybe Matur? region) in FM
Broadcasting band. The audio file is available at:
(2-Jan-2006) YV5LIX has temporarily setup a mode A1A beacon on
144.260 that you can monitor for possible TEP openings, this beacon is
running 25W and it is using the 3 WL horizontally polarized Yagi-Uda beaming
at 160 degrees. He says: " I can quickly switch the antenna to the
FT-847 and turn off the beacon if we are lucky with the propagation and you
or some one else heard it; I activated this beacon today at 16:30 UTC and I
will keep it running 24 hours until Mach 31st, since the beacon location is
my QTH it will be OFF while I'm active on 144 and will come back ON after I
end my activities. The beacon is transmitting the following text: DE
YV5LIX/B YV5LIX/B FK60NM K at 12 WPM, this is a 31.5 seconds TX cycle,
pauses for 33 second to cool down the finals and starts again, I did this to
provide the finals a 50% duty cycle."
"Also remember that I'm always connected to my cluster as
YV5LIX-1, and if I'm in front of the keyboard I will answer any talk
requests, please note that if you see may call connected but I doesn't
answer I may have momentarily stepped out of the shack or my be away from
home, the cluster is available 365/24 by connecting via TELNET to
yv5lix.org.ve on port 7300.py1cc"
(26-Dec-2005) Fl?io Archangelo (PY2ZX) and Luiz Tresso (PY2OC) on
behalf of the Japy DX Group (JDXG) have kindly provided the following
recordings of QSO and SWL made in portable operations from Comprida Island,
State of S? Paulo.
(6-Dec-2005) Jorge, LU6FEC, sends a
of his QSO with YV4MT on 146.400 MHz in FM. He also coments "This propagation is usual between November and February from 23 UTC till 02 UTC approximately. According to my experience with this type of propagation the power is not very important and you can achieve contacts with few mw. Last year I made QSO with Venezuela using a handy with its rubber antenna and 200 mw, from the door of my house." (Added to the QSO/SWL
listing and to the Map)
(2-Dec-2005) the complete listing of YV5LIX's TEP QSO on 2m
between 1987 and 2002 is now available.
Very nice 144 MHz TEP opening this evening, it started at 23 UTC in 6 meters
with the usual TEP heavy distortions that indicates possible 144 openings so
I quickly moved to 2 meters. Between 00:10 UTC and 00:30 UTC I again had a
very nice TEP opening to Argentina with very strong signals, I even worked a
station running 25 watts into a 1/4 wave vertical.
Station worked were:
00:17 LU4DMX Horacio, Frequency 144.300, Mode USB, Antenna Ringo vertical
and 80 watts, Grid GF05ph, His RST 56, My RST 59, Estimated distance 3071 km
00:20 LU5JB Juan, Frequency 144.300, Mode USB, Antenna 1/4 wave vertical
25 watts, Grid GF05rx, His RST 55, My RST 56, Estimated distance 3128 km
00:22 LU8DO Juan, Frequency 144.300, Mode USB, Antenna Unknown 80 watts,
Grid GF05qi, His RST 57, My RST 57, Estimated distance 3170 km
00:24 LU1DMA Luis, Frequency 144.300, Mode USB, Antenna Unknown 100 watts,
Grid GF05ph, His RST 57, My RST 59, Estimated distance 3071 km
(21-Nov-2005) YV5LIX reports: This evening, 21 Nov. 2005, at 00:13 UTC, I had a very good TEP opening to
Argentina, I made a nice QSO with Ricardo, LU7FA in FF96nw with a RST of 57,
the conditions presented the typical TEP modulation distortion, the same
station was also contacted by Luigi, YY5LKD, in FK60nd with 53 signal
I remained on the frequency with YY5LKD until 02:30 UTC but no other DX
station was contacted.
(15-Feb-2005) Superb presentation on VHF Propagation as observed
from Athens, given by Costas, SV1DH, as part of the 2003 UKSMG AGM
programme. Includes full narration recorded by Costas during the
(11-Feb-2005) OK2POI, contributes with the following information
about TEP reception in OK. Thanks for info Jiri!
"I read in old OK HAM publications informations about OK1MBS and OK1AIY.
They listened to TEP in OK on 2m and 70cm! I contacted both and they confirm me these
Stan OK1MS (ex.OK1MBS) it's one of TOP EME operators, he has 2m DXCC No.14 and 2m WAZ No.1!).
Stan listened to a few times beacon Z22JV on 144Mhz in JO70SL with his EME system in Feb.1982 always around 18z. The signals were always very weak, most 439. (Added to the
listing and to the Map)
Paul OK1AIY is TOP VHF,UHF,SHF designer and operator (he's QRV on all VHF bands up to 72Ghz) Paul was QRV in 1.subregional contest (First weekend of March 1981). He called CQ on 432,200 direction on south on Sunday morning.
After his CQ he heard strong signal ZS6LW, but QSO incompletion. The signals were right, as later confirm ZS6LW, he tried transmitter,
but he little listened. My comment: I'm not sure that it was TEP, because: -signal was in the day-time, -signal was undistorted and strong."
(11-Feb-2005) CT1HZE/DL8HCZ, provides the following information
about TEP attempts of RW1ZC/MM. Thanks for info Joe!
"RW1ZC/MM will be qrv from about Feb. 13th west of D2 going down west
of V5 to ZS until March 1st. He will be on 144.300 MHz 19 to 20 UT in CW for possible TEP tests with
Europe. Any skeds are welcome via CT1HZE at email@example.com
Alex has 100 W and a 10 ele."
(5-Feb-2005) Flavio, PY2ZX, reports the first TEP QSO on 144 MHz
"I would like to thank for who had response my communications about our
TEP experiences and spread the news to other hams in the area and bulletins.
In last week we finally did the TEP QSO in 2 meters, the first in PY2
land, with Ron 8P6JB and Andy 8P6RF portable in Barbados. The challenge was
made these QSOs in one area of Brazil often called too north for TEP in 2
Many thanks for this information Tony. Let's hope it will encourage more JA
and VK operators to make new attemps of TEP contacts on 144 MHz in the
comming years, when solar activity becomes higher.
(25-Jan-2005) Wolfgang, DC3MF, confirms the reception of ZE2JV's
beacon on 14 and 15 October 1979. Not only he confirms it, but he also
kindly provides a graph with the signal strength of
those receptions! So far this is the northmost confirmed reception
of 144 MHz. TEP in Europe and should encourage stations located in central
Europe to join the TEP tests that surely will be carried out in the
equinoxes, the years around the max. of the next solar cicle.
Wolfgang has promised (when he have time, of course) to look for old papers
he wrote for German newsletters like Funktelegramm,
Geophysical Review and also the MPI TEP-Magazine and some more about 20 or
30 articles with his oberservations about TEP on 28, 50 and 144 Mc and about
some of the mechanism in the short wave range.
He also writes: "If I remember back to the 1979/80/81's not my
observation was the northern most, but the observation from an Dutsh Radio
PA0 .... no more information's were the most northern. I heard that also a
German Station from G?tingen [nearby Hannover] observed ZE2JV [?] on 144
Mc, but no two way contact only beacon reports."
"I Think in a AGARD Conference hold in Athens I had a short paper
about 144 Mc observations with the multi-path-reports. I remember well that
we had heard in Munich in time some more then 10 pathes about 10? to 20?
western from the circle-path, but there are no more photos and so on."
Many thanks for the help Wolfgang! Your SWL has been added to the
listing and to the Map
(14-Dic-2004) Teo, YU7AR (ex YU7PXB) confirms the reception of
ZS6LW in 1981. This is the text of his E-Mail: Yes I heard TEP 05.05.1981 in KN05BW my loc. from ZS6LW ,OM AD an der
Watt transmit 18:05-18:15 GMT dir. 170-180 DEG , very strong sigs abt 5-7S
but no receving, may bad luck !
Many thanks for the help Teo! Your SWL has been added to the
listing and to the Map
(26-Nov-2004) SV1DH contributes with the following summary of
openings extracted from his thesis. I could not believe the number of
openings he recorded between 1978 and 1981. I had always thought that TEP on
144 MHz in the Euro-African sector was rare, but after seeing this I'm
changing my mind !
Jul 1978-Dec 1981 2m
TEP ON EUROAFRICAN SECTOR
Number of Openings
Mar 1979-Nov 1979 70cm TEP ON EUROAFRICAN SECTOR
(14-Nov-2004) 9H1CG sends me the following information on his
experiences in 1989/1990. Thanks for info Joe!
The 2m recording from Costas (see below) brought back many happy memories of hours of
listening for ZS3E/V51E and ZS3AT during the last cycle in 1989/1990.
I worked V51E on 16 September 1990 at 1844 GMT on 144.430 MHz. This was not the first time V51E was worked from 9H. Both 9H1BT and 9H1GB had worked him
earlier also as ZS3E. ZS3AT , Thomas, was also heard several times but I never managed to work him. Most interesting was the amount of backscatter we
used to copy from north Italian stations during these openings, and the way signals peaked and acquired T8/9 just before fading out completely. Thus I
celebrated 20 years of amateur radio to the day ! It was a most wonderful anniversary gift.
If I remember well, Kosie was running 80 watts into 2 x 9el vertically polorised yagis, and I was ( and still am ) running 100 watts from a
QQV06/40 into a 15 el horizontal.
(13-Nov-2004) EA6FB confirms that he received ZE2JV's beacon in
1979/1980 (not sure about the date), as reported in Nov.1981
QST issue. This report is specially interesting because it's the
evidence that TEP on 144 MHz not only works between stations located
perpendicular to the magnetic equator (look at the map)
and opens new possibilities for more stations the join the tests we surely
will run during the next max. of the solar cycle. Thanks for info Jose!
(12-Nov-2004) SV1DH, who was possibly the European most involved in
1978-1981 TEP tests on 144 MHz, has send the following VERY interesting
informations. Many thanks Costas!
- There were NO (negative) 432MHz QSOs on Euroafrican sector, but only few times reception of the ZE2JV 40W to 2X14 element Quagis bcn at a non recordable level (no DSP-Spectran ect- at that time).Tests with EME setup of ZE5JJ lead also to NO QSO.
- There were HUNDREDS of 2m openings of the three bcns (ZS6DN, ZS6PW,ZE2JV) but QSOs were rare, not many interested...
- ZS3B or ZS3E bcns NEVER heard in SV.
- The ZS6DN 2m recording seems to include some VFO correction for better recording audio and the tone change is not due to Doppler shift (although Doppler was present on other occasions.
The SV1DH 2m E-TEP cycle 21 "firsts" QSOs chronologicaly are (since we tested the TEP path on too many occasions):
- 26/4/1978 1820 ZE2JV CW
- 13/2/1979 1815 ZS6DN CW (World record, 7112Km)
- 5/3/1979 1826 ZS6LN CW
- 19/10/1979 1825 ZE2JE CW
- 7/4/1981 1752 ZS6LW CW
- 2/10/1981 1746 ZS6BU CW
I'm sure that I also worked ZS6PW on CW but can't find details by now (Freds bcn was in for hundred of hours)..
Pse also note that on 12/4/1978 SV1AB heard and later at 1756 worked ZE2JV (first EU to AF 2m TEP).
He also completes the bibliography with the some very
(12-Aug-2004) Colossi, PY3DU, has send me the following
information about his TEP contacts from GF49JW (Guaiba, RS. Near Porto
Alegre). They have been add to the QSO listing
and map of America.
I have made the followng QSO on two meters via TEP:
- WP4KJJ, Denis. 23 NOV 2001, QTR 00:25 UTC 144.250 mhz, SSB, RST 55
- KP4EIT, Jos? 28 DEC 2001, QTR 00:19 UTC 144.300 mhz SSB, RST 55
- 9Z4BM, Leon. 03 JAN 2002, QTR 00:37 UTC 145.500, FM, RST 55
I have made two more QSO in January 2004 with 9Y4 and KP4, but without
All worked in SSB/FM with an ICOM IC-251E with 10 watts output and an 11
element Yagi, 8 meters above the ground in verical polarization, fed with
(20-Jul-2004) I have received a kind E-Mail from Costas, SV1DH,
attaching two sound files of 144 MHz. TEP signals recordings from 1978/1979.
He has also been so gentle to allow me to put these sounds files here so
that you can listen how a TEP signal sounds on 144 MHz. These are the words
The signals were recorded by me as follows:
> ZS6DN bcn 144MHz; TX:100W RF to 4X 12 el Yagis; 1720Z, 5 NOV 1978
> ZE2JV bcns 144/50 MHz ; TX:40/10W RF to single Yagis; 1830Z, 3 FEB 1979
SV1DH RX 14/5 el single Yagis.
Note that the ZS6DN CW sig sounds auroral (keyed noise out of the rx noise..) and
there was no possibility of any SSB QSO, although this was routine on the other
two TEP sectors, and compare to clean 6m sig from ZE2JV, propagating via the "normal" mode.
More details on the relative QST article of Nov-Dec 1981.
(6-May-2004) JR4ENY/1, Awa, reports no TEP QSOs from JA on two
meters TEP during the peak of the current cycle, although TV/FM DX'rs from
JA6 and VK8 have reported openings up to 170 MHz !. There has been surely
openings on 144 MHz but no QSO posibly because of the low activity on 144
MHz. from VK8, and also the VK8VF beacon being QRT. Let's hope next solar
cycle there are new VK8 and JA6 stations interested in repeating the success
of older times. Thanks to F6HTJ for
(9-August-2003) John, M0ELS, writes "I wish to take part in
the coming tep season and will be qrv with 2x 10 ele. long yagi's (dl6wu
design) with 100w or more...my locator is jo01kh......"
(20-June-2003) Ronald, PE1LYK, reports that PA3AQM tried TEP in the
80's and that he managed once to hear a ZS beacon, but no QSO was
achieved...Working TEP from northern Europe requires an additional
propagation mode to be involved, making it even more difficult, but it seems
that not impossible !
Many thanks also for the QST and RADCOM articles on
TEP (see below in the Bibliography). It's great
to see how seriously TEP was studied in the 80's and also how many QSOs
where made on 2m. I wonder what has changed that nowadays with much
more sofisticated equipments and more stations active we don't manage to
make almost any QSO. That's something to think about.....
(1-Mar-2003) I have been talking to Kossie, V51E on six meters this
evening and he reports that his 144 MHz beacon is currently not active. He
might switch it on later if conditions seem promising.
Solar activity is quite low to expect TEP on 144 MHz, but TEP signals on
50 MHz are rising in the last days. I worked PY5CC yesterday for the first
time this year...so let's see..
(10-Feb-2003) Paul, F6EGV (JN33rt), announces that he will
be QRV for 144 MHz TEP tests everyday on 144.055 MHz in CW, calling the 10
first ten minutes of the hour from 19:30 to 21:30 UTC starting 20-February
till 20-April. He will be beaming for stations in ZS and V5.
He will be also monitoring 28.055 CW as frequency of service.
I, EA6VQ, will personally monitor 144.055 as well at those times, let's
hope some V5 / ZS stations will join the tests.
Stations in ZS/V5 area PLEASE spread around this information !
Many thanks to Michel, F6HTJ for forwarding me this info.
(20-Oct-2002) from ZR1AEE on new beacon ZS1VHF. I have installed a 2m beacon on 144.425 MHz at jf96hc. beacon info is vvv de zs1vhf jf96hc.
beacon is pointing east at this moment. will point west to brasilie from december till end of february and will point north from march till june or later. antenna is 12el yagi horizontal 10 m above ground. output power of beacon transmitter is 25w.
Most people know by now that SV1DH was one of the principal stations involved in the very successful Transequatorial propagation
tests which took place during the 21st sunspot cycle between 1977 and 1983. Costas gave me a simplified explanation of the phenomenon first
noticed by Ray Cracknell ZE2JV and Roland Whiting 5B4WR way back in September 1957, namely that VHF signals can travel great distances
across the equator (5,000 to 8,000 kilometres) during the years of high sunspot activity.
Costas said that usually stations located approximately the same distance north and south of the magnetic (not geographic) equator can
contact each other shortly after sunset at both locations. The first such QSO took place on the 10th April 1978 between ZE2JV and 5B4WR.
Two days later ZE2JV contacted George Vernardakis SV1AB and this contact was followed a few days later with QSOs with SV1DH and SV1CS.
(Fuller details of these contacts are given later in this book in the interview with SV1AB).
In October 1976 there was a rumour that 145 MHz signals had been heard directly between Argentina and Venezuela. With the imminent
beginning of sunspot cycle 21 many amateurs in the northern and southern hemispheres began organizing tests on 50,144,220 and 432 MHz.
Within less than a year successful 2-way contact was established between Argentina and Venezuela on 144 MHz.
Greece is favourably placed for TEP to countries in Africa where there is considerable amateur radio activity, like Zimbabwe and the
Union of South Africa. So towards the end of 1977 SV1AB and SV1DH began looking for colleagues in suitable geographic locations with the
appropriate equipment and the time and inclination to engage in tests which could go on for months and months on end. Very soon the
following stations agreed to participate in the tests. The northern group included SV1AB, SV1DH, 5B4WR and 5B4AZ. In the southern
hemisphere participants were ZE2JV (now G2AHU), ZS6PW, ZS6DN, ZS6LN and ZS3B.
After 4 months of daily test schedules, early in 1978, successful contacts took place on 144 MHz, some of which constituted world
distance records for that time, as can be seen in the accompanying table. Amateurs in Malta, Italy, France and Spain soon began to
participate in the tests, as well as amateurs in other areas of South Africa.
It can be seen from the world map that the magnetic dip (shown as a heavy line) is very different to the geographic equator. The QTH of
SV1AB is in a suburb 10 kilometres north of SV1DH's so George's contacts with the stations in Africa always had that edge on them.
In South Africa Dave Larson ZS6DN had set up a beacon which was first heard in Athens by SV1AB in February 1979. Within a few days
ZS6DN had QSOs with SV1DH and SV1AB. The latter contact was a world distance record via the F-regions of the ionosphere because of the
extra distance involved owing to the locations of the two Greek stations, as mentioned in the previous paragraph.
For anyone who may be interested very comprehensive reports of the work done in transequatorial propagation during cycle 21 and earlier
appeared in articles written by Ray Cracknell ZE2JV/G2AHU and Roland Whiting 5B4WR/G3UYO in the June/July/August 1980 issues of Radio
Communuication, the journal of the R.S.G.B. and in the November/December 1980 issues of QST.
Interview to SV1AB:
Norman: "Tell me about your contribution to the transequatorial tests of 1979."
SV1AB: "I had been in regular contact with ZS6LN on ten metres long before Costas SV1DH appeared on the scene. I remember asking
ZS6LN why we should not receive South African stations on 2 metres when we could hear them so well on 50 MHz. He had replied that the
two frequencies behaved in a very different manner, but there was no harm in trying. He got ZS6PW and ZS6DN interested in the idea,
particularly ZS6DN who had much better aerials and a very good QTH. He was the one who stood the better chance of being heard in Greece.
We arranged a schedule of transmitting and listening every evening. First they transmitted and we listened, and then we transmitted and
they listened, and contact was maintained on ten metres."
Norman: "You said `every evening' --do you mean that the Sun has something to do with this type of propagation?"
George: "Most certainly. All the contacts that were made subsequently were at least one hour after the relevant part of the
ionosphere was in darkness."
George then described how the first signals were heard via transequatorial propagation.
George: "First we heard the beacon on 144.160 MHz set up by Ray Cracknell ZE2JV in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe). The date was
April 12th 1978 at 18.00 G.M.T. Ten months later I heard ZS6DN's automatic beacon with a colossal signal, but he was not at home! I
went to 20 metres and put out a frantic CQ for any station in South Africa but got no reply. I returned to the cross-band frequency on 10
metres which we used regularly for 28/50 MHz QSOs and managed to contact a station in South Africa who was very far away from ZS6DN but
who kindly offered to QSP a message by telephone. He was told that ZS6DN had gone out but would be back soon. I was terrified that the
opening would not last long enough. But in a few minutes I heard him calling me slowly on CW and we exchanged reports at 17.20 G.M.T on
February 16th 1979. This was a new world record for the longest distance on 2 metres
"Three days earlier, however, when I was not at home, Costas SV1DH had established the first TEP contact between Greece and South Africa
when he contacted ZS6DN. As you know, my location is a mere 10 kilometres north of SV1DH's. I have a tape recording of my QSO with
ZS6DN as well as with ZS6PW whose signals came through a few minutes later at 17.34 G.M.T. on that historic evening.(The local time in
Athens was 7.34 p.m.).Of course the distance record was broken again on September 17th 1981 when I contacted ZS4BU who is 110 kilometres
further south than ZS6DN."
Norman: "Were all these contacts only on the key?"
George: "Yes, all the contacts were on CW. On several occasions we tried SSB but there was so much distortion that not a single word
could be identified. TEP has a lot of flutter and fading and as you can hear on the tapes even the morse comes through like a breathing
noise, not a clear tone. This applies to contacts between Greece and South Africa. Contacts between Japan and Australia where the
distances involved are smaller, have been made on SSB."
On February 24th, 1977 we received some big news - a JA station succeeded in having the first QSO with a VK station on 2 meters. That QSO was on SSB on 144.110 MHz at 2059 JST, between JH6TEW (Kikuchi-shi, Kumamoto Prefecture) and VK8GB (Darwin, Australia), which was a super record for 2 meter DX when you consider that the distance between the two cities is 4,992 km. Regrettably, this did not set a new world's record because one half month prior to this, on February 12th, KP4EOR (Puerto Rico) and LU6DJZ (Argentina) had an SSB QSO on 2 meters, a distance of 5,000 km. Those QSOs were by transequatorial propagation. QSOs between VK and JA were FB after that and we were able to have QSOs with VK8VV, etc. also from Darwin, and in the TE season in spring and fall many stations, mainly JA6 and also the 3, 4, and 5 areas had QSOs with Australia
December 06, 2000. FG/N0JK (FK96hd) Guadeloupe results. 102 QSOs on 6M in 16 countries. Worked PY5CC Nov. 27 00:47utc 2M on TEP! Opening to Europe Nov. 27 at 1145 utc worked D, I, OK, PA, and S5. Further info at FG/N0JK
Jon FG/N0JK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
An equally likely mode is TEP around 8.00-9.00 pm local time when phase 2-style TEP peaks, to reach a MUF sufficient to carry the very
high 144 MHz. This mode has a fast flutter/fade sound on it, with plenty of doppler spread. This is a relatively rare occurrence at
this high frequency, but has happened over the years. In this case the TX station is almost certainly about 6000-8000 km due north or
south of your receiving locality, depending on whether you are north or south of the TEP equator.
T.E.P. (Trans-Equatorial Propagation)
TEP....Known as Trans-equatorial Propagation, as the contact is made from each side of the Equator. Good contacts have been possible right through the minimum of each solar cycle on 50MHz, 144MHz, and 432MHz from around the 30 to 36 degrees latitudes down to Southern Africa is one example.
During Solar maximum both the "north and south" paths are extended way past the normal temperate zones. TEP has also a distinctive flutter on the signal.
Reported by IK0BZY (TNX Enrico)
In autumn 1989 and spring 1990 I made quite a number of QSO with ZS3E (V51E)
Kosie and ZS3AT Tom. Especially in october - november 1989 almost everyday
around 18-20 utc we could hear ZS3E beacon. We also had some SSB QSOs when
the TEP was stronger!
Reported by I5CTE (TNX Piero)
I'd like to let you know that back in 1990 I worked ZS3E(now V51E) on 144 on
three separate occasions,in Oct-Nov.That was an excitement indeed!About a year
ago,I set up some skeds with V51E,but nothing was heard.My geographical
position,relative to the magnetic equator,is such that Namibia appears to be the
most favorable area for TEP contacts on 144 from here(JN53XG)
Interesting beacons to listen from Europe
ZS2VHF on 144.412 MHz. (Pointing north)
V51E on 144.400 (news from March-2003. Beacon is currently QRT)
ZS1VHF on 144.425 MHz (Pointing north March-June 2003 / 12el. & 25w)
For stations in Southern Africa area, remember
that the call frequency in Europe is 144.300 MHz, and that there is where
everyone is listening most of the time. Please use 144.300 when calling for TEP
to Europe !. And remember that best times in our longitude are between 17:00 and